The Audacity Of Hope

by Barack Obama

Troy Shu
Troy Shu
Updated at: March 12, 2024
The Audacity Of Hope
The Audacity Of Hope

What are the big ideas? 1. The Importance of Valuing Empathy and Authenticity in Politics: The author emphasizes the importance of empathy as a fundamental value th

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What are the big ideas?

  1. The Importance of Valuing Empathy and Authenticity in Politics: The author emphasizes the importance of empathy as a fundamental value that can help bridge political divides and guide effective decision-making in politics. He also stresses the need for authenticity, acknowledging that talk is cheap and values must be acted upon to have meaning.
  2. The Balance Between Ideals and Pragmatism: The author highlights the delicate balance between ideals and pragmatism in American democracy and provides historical examples of how both have been essential in addressing complex issues, such as Lincoln's presidency during the Civil War.
  3. Structural Changes to Strengthen the Link Between Voters and Their Representatives: The author suggests structural changes to politics, including nonpartisan districting, same-day registration, public financing of campaigns, and rule changes in Congress, which could help strengthen the link between voters and their representatives and encourage more integrity in politics.
  4. Fostering Compassionate Dialogue on Moral Issues: The author advocates for a compassionate approach to moral debates, recognizing the need for persuasive argument rather than violence or intimidation and encouraging openness to new interpretations of religious principles.
  5. Addressing Complex Immigration Reform through Compromise: The author emphasizes the importance of compromise in addressing complex issues such as immigration reform, acknowledging the deep-rooted fears and anxieties among native-born Americans but recognizing the shared dreams and aspirations that bind all Americans together.




  • The author discusses the importance of common values and ideals in American society, despite the current bitter partisanship and polarization.
  • He reflects on his own experiences as a politician, husband, father, Christian, and skeptic to offer insights on how to ground politics in the notion of a common good.
  • The book is organized into six chapters: taking stock of recent political history, discussing common values, exploring the role of the Constitution, examining institutional forces that stifle effective politics, and proposing solutions for economic insecurity, racial and religious tensions, and transnational threats.
  • The author acknowledges his biases as a Democrat but emphasizes the importance of free markets, competition, entrepreneurship, and individual rights.
  • He also recognizes the need to address issues such as inner-city breakdowns and spiritual life, and rejects politics based solely on identity or victimhood.
  • The book aims to help politicians avoid the pitfalls of fame, please, fear of loss, and retain their deepest commitments.


“another tradition to politics, a tradition (of politics) that stretched from the days of the country’s founding to the glory of the civil rights movement, a tradition based on the simple idea that we have a stake in one another, and that what binds us together is greater than what drives us apart, and that if enough people believe in the truth of that proposition and act on it, then we might not solve every problem, but we can get something meaningful done.”

“Some of it was just a function of my getting older, I suppose, for if you are paying attention, each successive year will make you more intimately acquainted with all of your flaws – the blind spots, the recurring habits of thought that may be genetic or may be environmental, but that will almost certainly worsen with time, as surely as the hitch in your walk turns to pain in your hip.”

“Someone once said that every man is trying to live up to his father's expectations or make up for their father's mistakes....”

“I began feeling the way I imagine an actor or athlete must feel when, after years of commitment to a particular dream...he realizes that he's gone just about as far as talent or fortune will take him. The dream will not happen, and he now faces the choice of accepting this fact like a grownup and moving on to more sensible pursuits, or refusing the truth and ending up bitter, quarrelsome, and slightly pathetic. ”

“I believe in evolution, scientific inquiry, and global warming; I believe in free speech, whether politically correct or politically incorrect, and I am suspicious of using government to impose anybody's religious beliefs -including my own- on nonbelievers.”

“I wish the country had fewer lawyers and more engineers.”

CHAPTER ONE: Republicans and Democrats


  • The conservative movement gained strength in the 1960s and 1970s, driven by opposition to the civil rights movement, the counterculture, and liberal policies.
  • The Republican Party became more disciplined, centralized power in the House of Representatives, and invested heavily in technology and media outlets to mobilize their base.
  • The conservative movement attacked President Clinton's morality and biography to undermine his presidency, which helped pave the way for a conservative takeover of the US government under George W. Bush.
  • Today, the Republican Party is characterized by absolutism in free markets, religion, and majority will, while the Democratic Party is often reactionary and lacks a clear governing philosophy.
  • A broad majority of Americans is needed to address the challenges facing the country, but this requires political leaders who are open to new ideas and not just new packaging.
  • The current polarized electorate works well for those seeking to chip away at the very idea of government, and a cynical electorate is a self-centered electorate.
  • To build a working majority, Democrats must reject doctrinaire thinking and partisanship, and instead focus on finding common ground with Republicans and independents of goodwill.


“When people at dinner parties ask me how I can possibly operate in the current political environment, with all the negative campaigning and personal attacks, I may mention Nelson Mandela, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, or some guy in a Chinese or Egyptian prison somewhere. In truth, being called names is not such a bad deal.”

“No, what's troubling is the gap between the magnitude of our challenges and the smallness of our politics--the ease with which we are distracted by the petty and trivial, our chronic avoidance of tough decisions, our seeming inability to build a working concensus to tackle any big problem.”

“We think of faith as a source of comfort and understanding but find our expressions of faith sowing division; we believe ourselves to be a tolerant people even as racial, religious, and cultural tensions roil the landscape. And instead of resolving these tensions or mediating these conflicts, our politics fans them, exploits them,and drives us further apart.”

“In distilled form, though, the explanations of both the right and the left have become mirror images of each other. They are stories of conspiracy, of America being hijacked by an evil cabal. Like all good conspiracy theories, both tales contain just enough truth to satisfy those predisposed to believe in them, without admitting any contradictions that might shake up those assumptions. Their purpose is not to persuade the other side but to keep their bases agitated and assured of the rightness of their respective causes - and lure just enough new adherents to beat the other side into submission.”

“Eventually my rejection of authority spilled into self-indulgence and self-destructiveness, and by the time I enrolled in college, I'd begun to see how any challenge to convention harbored within it the possibility of its own excesses and its own orthodoxy. I started to reexamine my assumptions, and recalled the values my mother and grandparents had taught me. In this slow, fitful process of sorting out what I believed, I began silently registering the point in dorm-room conversations when my college friends and I stopped thinking and slipped into can't: the point at which the denunciations of capitalism or American imperialism came too easily, and the freedom from the constraints of monogamy or religion was proclaimed without fully understanding the value of such constraints, and the role of victim was too readily embraced as a means of shedding responsibility, or asserting entitlement, or claiming moral superiority over those not so victimized.”

“Mainly, though, the Democratic Party has become the party of reaction. In reaction to a war that is ill conceived, we appear suspicious of all military action. In reaction to those who proclaim the market can cure all ills, we resist efforts to use market principles to tackle pressing problems. In reaction to religious overreach, we equate tolerance with secularism, and forfeit the moral language that would help infuse our policies with a larger meaning. We lose elections and hope for the courts to foil Republican plans. We lost the courts and wait for a White House scandal. And increasingly we feel the need to match the Republican right in stridency and hardball tactics. The accepted wisdom that drives many advocacy groups and Democratic activists these days goes like this: The Republican Party has been able to consistently win elections not by expanding its base but by vilifying Democrats, driving wedges into the electorate, energizing its right wing, and disciplining those who stray from the party line. If the Democrats ever want to get back into power, then they will have to take up the same approach. ...Ultimately, though, I believe any attempt by Democrats to pursue a more sharply partisan and ideological strategy misapprehends the moment we're in. I am convinced that whenever we exaggerate or demonize, oversimplify or overstate our case, we lose. Whenever we dumb down the political debate, we lose. For it's precisely the pursuit of ideological purity, the rigid orthodoxy and the sheer predictability of our current political debate, that keeps us from finding new ways to meet the challenges we face as a country. It's what keeps us locked in "either/or" thinking: the notion that we can have only big government or no government; the assumption that we must either tolerate forty-six million without health insurance or embrace "socialized medicine". It is such doctrinaire thinking and stark partisanship that have turned Americans off of politics. ”

“Maybe the critics are right. Maybe there's no escaping our great political divide, an endless clash of armies, and any attempts to alter the rules of engagement are futile. Or maybe the trivialization of politics has reached a point of no return, so that most people see it as just one more diversion, a sport, with politicians our paunch-bellied gladiators and those who bother to pay attention just fans on the sidelines: We paint our faces red or blue and cheer our side and boo their side, and if it takes a late hit or cheap shot to beat the other team, so be it, for winning is all that matters. But I don't think so. They are out there, I think to myself, those ordinary citizens who have grown up in the midst of all the political and cultural battles, but who have found a way-in their own lives, at least- to make peace with their neighbors, and themselves. ...I imagine they are waiting for a politics with the maturity to balance idealism and realism, to distinguish between what can and cannot be compromised, to admit the possibility that the other side might sometimes have a point. They don't always understand the arguments between right and left, conservative and liberal, but they recognize the difference between dogma and common sense, responsibility and irresponsibility, between those things that last and those that are fleeting. They are out there, waiting for Republicans and Democrats to catch up with them.”



  • The author believes that values are essential for individuals and society, and they should guide both personal and political decisions.
  • Authenticity, empathy, and a sense of mutual responsibility are important values for the author.
  • The importance of empathy is learned through experiences in relationships with family members.
  • Values must be acted upon to have meaning; talk is cheap.
  • American society values being rich, thin, young, famous, safe, and entertained over things like equal opportunity and leaving a good legacy for the next generation.
  • Values are subject to challenge but have proven to be durable and constant across classes, races, and generations.
  • Values demand deeds and not just words.


“The stakes involved in Washington policy debates are often so high-- whether we send our young men and women to war; whether we allow stem cell research to go forward-- that even small differences in perspective are magnified. The demands of party loyalty, the imperative of campaigns, and the amplification of conflict by the media all contribute to an atmosphere of suspicion. Moreover, most people who serve in Washington have been trained either as lawyers or as political operatives-- professions that tend to place a premium on winning arguments rather than solving problems. I can see how, after a certain amount of time in the capital, it becomes tempting to assume that those who disagree with you have fundamentally different values-- indeed, that they are motivated by bad faith, and perhaps are bad people.”

“But we understand our liberty in a more positive sense as well, in the idea of opportunity and the subsidiary values that help realize opportunity—all those homespun virtues that Benjamin Franklin first popularized in Poor Richard's Almanack and that have continued to inspire our allegiance through successive generations. The values of self-reliance and self-improvement and risk-taking. The values of drive, discipline, temperance, and hard work. The values of thrift and personal responsibility. These values are rooted in a basic optimism about life and a faith in free will—a confidence that through pluck and sweat and smarts, each of us can rise above the circumstances of our birth. But these values also express a broader confidence that so long as individual men and women are free to pursue their own interests, society as a whole will prosper.”

“Illinois preschoolers were temporarily saved from the debilitating effects of cereal and milk.”

“Values are faithfully applied to the facts before us, while ideology overrides whatever facts call theory into question.”

“In few other professions are you required, each and every day, to weigh so many competing claims—between different sets of constituents, between the interests of your state and the interests of the nation, between party loyalty and your own sense of independence, between the value of service and obligations to your family. There is a constant danger, in the cacophony of voices, that a politician loses his moral bearings and finds himself entirely steered by the winds of public opinion.”

“And yet I find myself returning again and again to my mother's simple principle—"How would that make you feel?"—as a guidepost for my politics.”

“As a country, we seem to be suffering from an empathy deficit.”

“And it's safe to assume that those in power would think longer and harder about launching a war if they envisioned their own sons and daughters in harm's way.”

“I believe a stronger sense of empathy would tilt the balance of our current politics in favor of those people who are struggling in this society. After all if they are like us, then their struggles are our own. If we fail to help we diminish ourselves.”

“That's what empathy does—it calls us all to task, the conservative and the liberal, the powerful and the powerless, the oppressed and the oppressor. We are all shaken out of our complacency. We are all forced beyond our limited vision.”

“No one is exempt from the call to find common ground.”

“If we aren't willing to pay a price for our values, if we aren't willing to make some sacrifices in order to realize them, then we should ask ourselves whether we truly believe in them at all.”

“We say we value the legacy we leave the next generation and then saddle that generation with mountains of debt.”

“We hang on to our values, even if they seem at times tarnished and worn; even if, as a nation and in our own lives, we have betrayed them more often that we care to remember. What else is there to guide us? Those values are our inheritance, what makes us who we are as a people. And although we recognize that they are subject to challenge, can be poked and prodded and debunked and turned inside out bu intellectuals and cultural critics, they have proven to be both surprisingly durable and surprisingly constant across classes, and races, and faiths, and generations. We can make claims on their behalf, so long as we understand that our values must be tested against fact and experience, so long as we recall that they demand deeds and not just words.”

CHAPTER THREE: Our Constitution


  • The Founding Fathers were committed to both ideals and pragmatism in creating the American democracy. They believed that deliberation, compromise, and checks and balances were essential for ensuring individual freedoms while also addressing the demands of community.
  • Although the Constitution provided a framework for expanding individual rights and liberties, it did not initially protect those outside the political community, such as slaves and Native Americans. The resolution of this issue required more than deliberation – it ultimately required the use of force.
  • Deliberation and compromise can sometimes be necessary to address complex issues, but there are situations where absolute truths demand action despite the potential risks and uncertainties.
  • The balance between ideals and pragmatism is a delicate one that requires humility, self-awareness, and a willingness to acknowledge the limitations of human knowledge and understanding.
  • Lincoln's presidency provides an example of how both deliberation and conviction were essential for leading the country through its most trying times. His firm convictions regarding slavery were balanced with pragmatism in his attempts to maintain the Union without war, but when war became inevitable, he was willing to act decisively and forcefully to preserve the Republic.
  • The recent debate over filibuster reform in the Senate serves as a reminder of the importance of understanding constitutional rules and precedents, and the need for compromise and flexibility in finding solutions to complex issues within the framework of American democracy.


“Conservative or liberal, we are all constitutionalists.”

“It was Jefferson, not some liberal judge in the sixties, who called for a wall between church and state—and if we have declined to heed Jefferson’s advice to engage in a revolution every two or three generations, it’s only because the Constitution itself proved a sufficient defense against tyranny.”

“Implicit … in the very idea of ordered liberty, was a rejection of absolute truth, the infallibility of any idea or ideology or theology or “ism,” any tyrannical consistency that might lock future generations into a single, unalterable course, or drive both majorities and minorities into the cruelties of the Inquisition, the pogrom, the gulag, or the jihad. ... A rejection of absolutism, in all its forms, may sometimes slip into moral relativism or even nihilism, an erosion of values that hold society together…”

“Lincoln, and those buried at Gettysburg, remind us that we should pursue our own absolute truths only if we acknowledge that there may be a terrible price to pay.”



  • The author describes his experience as a freshman senator and the challenges he faced in Washington, D.C., including dealing with the media, maintaining integrity, and navigating the legislative process.
  • The media landscape has changed significantly in recent years, with a focus on sensationalism and spin rather than facts and substance. This makes it difficult for politicians to communicate effectively and honestly with the public.
  • Maintaining integrity in politics is challenging, as there are constant pressures to compromise or bend the truth to fit narrative boxes created by the media.
  • The legislative process can be unsatisfying and frustrating, with bills often containing compromises that leave all parties dissatisfied. Voting on these bills can be difficult, especially for members of the minority party who have little influence over their content.
  • Bipartisanship is a desirable goal, but it requires an honest process of give-and-take and a focus on achieving agreed-upon goals. In practice, however, the majority party often seeks to gain advantage through logrolling and omnibus spending bills.
  • The minority party faces particular challenges in being "bipartisan," as they have little control over the content of legislation and must vote yes or no on whatever bill comes to the floor.
  • The author argues that structural changes, such as nonpartisan districting, same-day registration, public financing of campaigns, and rule changes in Congress, could help strengthen the link between voters and their representatives and encourage more integrity in politics. However, these changes would require a willingness from politicians to challenge the status quo and risk their own power and popularity.


“Indeed, it's not a stretch to say that most voters no longer choose their representatives; instead, representatives choose their voters.”

“There's a wonderful, perhaps apocryphal story that people tell about Daniel Patrick Moynihan, the brilliant, prickly, and iconoclastic late senator from New York. Apparently, Moynihan was in a heated argument with one of his colleagues over an issue, and the other senator, sensing he was on the losing side of the argument, blurted out: 'Well, you may disagree with me, Pat, I'm entitled to my own opinion." To which Moynihan frostily replied, "You are entitled to you own opinion, but you are not entitled to you own facts.”

“We have no authoritative figure, no Walter Cronkite or Edward R. Murrow whom we all listen to and trust to sort out contradictory claims. Instead, the media is splintered into a thousand fragments, each with its own version of reality, each claiming the loyalty of a splintered nation.”

“The absence of even rough agreement on the facts puts every opinion on equal footing and therefore eliminates the basis for thoughtful compromise. It rewards not those who are right, but those - like the White House press office - who can make their arguments most loudly, most frequently, most obstinately, and with the best backdrop.”

CHAPTER FIVE: Opportunity


  • The U.S. national debt has increased significantly due to tax cuts primarily benefiting the top income earners.
  • The debt is a concern as foreign central banks may stop lending to the U.S., leading to higher interest rates and decreased spending on necessary investments and assistance for struggling families.
  • To avoid such a future, the U.S. should make difficult choices, such as cutting nonessential programs, consolidating health-care costs, eliminating tax credits that have outlived their usefulness, closing corporate loopholes, and restoring Paygo.
  • Buffett believes that those who've benefited most from the market economy should pay a bigger share in taxes to help fund public investments and provide safety nets for those who lose out.
  • The estate tax primarily affects the wealthiest one-half of 1% of the population, and its proposed repeal would cost the U.S. Treasury around $1 trillion.
  • Americans have become confused about taxes, conflating the tax burdens of the middle class and the wealthy. The rich in America have much to be grateful for, but they can also afford to pay more in taxes to help ensure every American child has a chance for success.
  • Jefferson feared the concentration of wealth and power, and we've lost that balance in Washington due to weakened unions, distracted press, and powerful lobbyists, making it harder to maintain bonds with one another.


“The conservative revolution that Reagan helped usher in gained traction because Reagan's central insight - that the liberal welfare state had grown complacent and overly bureaucratic, with Democratic policy makers more obsessed with slicing the economic pie than with growing the pie - contained a good deal of truth.”

“But by the end of two years, most have either changed careers or moved to suburban schools - a consequence of low pay, a lack of support from the educational bureaucracy, and a pervasive feeling of isolation.”

“A nation that can't control its energy sources can't control its future.”

“More than anything, it is that sense - that despite great differences in wealth, we rise and fall together - that we can't afford to lose.”



  • The relationship between faith and democratic pluralism can be complex and requires a sense of proportion and compromise.
  • Religion and reason operate in different domains, and it is essential to keep them separate in public policy making.
  • Compromise is not always possible in political debates touching on religion, but it is important to ensure that persuasion rather than violence or intimidation determines the outcome.
  • Christians should recognize the need to apply religious principles consistently and with proportion, and should be open to new revelations and interpretations.
  • The best we can do in a pluralistic society is to ensure that our politics are grounded in universal values and principles accessible to all, regardless of faith or lack thereof.
  • It is important to resist the temptation to impute bad faith to those who disagree with us on moral issues, and to recognize inconsistencies in how moral claims are applied.
  • In judging the persuasiveness of various moral claims, we should be open to compromise where possible, and focus our energies on reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies through education and other means.
  • The best response to those who use religion as a weapon to justify discrimination or harm is to engage in persuasive argument and to work towards building a more compassionate and just society for all.


“make away out of no way”

“faith doesn't mean that you don't have doubts... [you] still experience the same greed, resentment, lust, and anger that everyone else experienced... the lines between sinner and saved [are] more fluid; the sins of those who come to church are not so different from the sins of those who don't... You [need] to come to church precisely because you [are] of this world, not apart from it; rich, poor, sinner, saved you [need] to embrace Christ precisely because you had sins to wash away... that religious commitment did not require me to suspend critical thinking, disengage from the battle for economic and social justice, or otherwise retreat from the world...”

“There are a whole lot of religious people in America, including the majority of Democrats. When we abandon the field of religious discourse—when we ignore the debate about what it means to be a good Christian or Muslim or Jew; when we discuss religion only in the negative sense of where or how it should not be practiced, rather than in the positive sense of what it tells us about our obligations toward one another; when we shy away from religious venues and religious broadcasts because we assume that we will be unwelcome—others will fill the vacuum. And those who do are likely to be those with the most insular views of faith, or who cynically use religion to justify partisan ends.”

“Each path to knowledge involves different rules and these rules are not interchangeable.”

“At some fundamental level, religion does not allow for compromise. It insists on the impossible. If God has spoken, then followers are expected to live up to God's edicts, regardless of the consequences. To base one's life on such uncompromising commitments may be sublime; to base our policy making on such commitments would be a dangerous thing.”



  • The immigration issue in the United States is complex and contentious, with valid concerns on both sides regarding economic impacts, cultural differences, and national sovereignty.
  • The Senate passed a comprehensive immigration reform bill in 2006, which included provisions for border security, changes to employer hiring practices, and a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants, as well as a guest worker program.
  • The debate over the bill was marked by deep-rooted fears and anxieties among native-born Americans, who felt that their jobs were being taken or that their sovereignty was being threatened.
  • Opponents of the bill used rhetoric to attack Senator Obama for supposedly requiring foreign workers to be paid more than U.S. workers, despite the amendment's intent to protect American workers.
  • At a naturalization workshop, Senator Obama met with immigrants and their families and recognized the shared dreams and aspirations that bind all Americans together, regardless of race or national origin.
  • The challenges facing America in the future include ensuring equal opportunities for all, recognizing the humanity and dignity of all people, and promoting social cohesion amid increasing diversity.


“America is big enough to accommodate all their dreams.”

CHAPTER EIGHT: The World Beyond Our Borders


  • The world is interconnected and the actions of one country can have far-reaching consequences for others.
  • The United States has played a significant role in shaping the international system since World War II, but its influence is waning due to a combination of factors including economic competition from rising powers, military overreach, and domestic distractions.
  • The ideals of free markets and liberal democracy offer the best hope for improving the lives of people around the world, but they need to be combined with efforts to address poverty, inequality, and lack of security.
  • U.S. foreign policy should focus on promoting democracy in a sustainable way, providing economic assistance that addresses the root causes of poverty, strengthening international institutions, and leading by example through perfecting our own democracy.
  • The United States has an obligation to engage in efforts to bring about peace in the Middle East and address global challenges such as climate change, but it must also be willing to make hard choices and live up to its ideals at home.


“America has not the option as to whether it will or it will not play a great part in the world,” Roosevelt would argue. “It must play a great part. All that it can decide is whether it will play that part well or badly.”

“What I could not support was "a dumb war, a rash war, a war based not on reason but on passion, not on principle but on politics".”

“No person, in any culture, likes to be bullied. No person likes living in fear because his or her ideas are different. Nobody likes being poor or hungry, and nobody likes to live under an economic system in which the fruits of his or her labor go perpetually unrewarded.”

“For half of the world's population, roughly three billion people around the world living on less than two dollars a day, an election is at best a means, not an end; a starting point, not deliverance. These people are looking less for an "electocracy" than for the basic elements that for most of us define a decent life--food, shelter, electricity, basic health care, education for their children, and the ability to make their way through life without having to endure corruption, violence, or arbitrary power.”

“It's in the misery of some unnamed slum that the next killer virus will emerge.”

“I wonder, sometimes, whether men and women in fact are capable of learning from history--whether we progress from one stage to the next in an upward course or whether we just ride the cycles of boom and bust, war and peace, ascent and decline.”



  • The author reflects on the importance of being a present and involved father, especially for children growing up in challenging circumstances.
  • He acknowledges his own shortcomings in this regard and shares some ways he tries to make up for it, such as attending dinner and bedtime routines when possible.
  • He also discusses the pressures and demands of his political career and how they impact his ability to be present for his family.
  • The author recalls a birthday party experience where he successfully managed to procure and coordinate various elements, but acknowledges that such tasks are not typically within his capabilities.
  • He shares memories of his own childhood and the influence of his grandfather's presence on his life, and expresses hope that his daughters will have similar positive experiences with him.


“I realized that in some unspoken, still tentative way, she and I were already becoming a family.”



  • Obama's speech at the 2004 Democratic National Convention was a pivotal moment in his political career.
  • He discussed the importance of staying true to the party's origins as the party of the average Joe and encouraging participation from those who feel locked out of the process.
  • The convention served as a weeklong infomercial for the party and its nominee, with major donors rewarded with access and entertainment.
  • Obama was nervous before delivering his speech but felt satisfied afterwards knowing he had helped people live their lives with dignity.
  • He found solace in visiting historic sites in Washington D.C. and reflecting on the sacrifices made by those who built America.


“My heart is filled with love for this country.”


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