All the President's Men

by Carl Bernstein, Bob Woodward

Troy Shu
Troy Shu
Updated at: April 28, 2024
All the President's Men
All the President's Men

An in-depth look at the groundbreaking investigative strategies used by Woodward and Bernstein in uncovering the Watergate scandal. Explore the power of media, the challenges of political reporting, and the essential role of journalistic persistence. Get ready to apply the lessons and test your understanding with the included questions.

What are the big ideas?

Innovative Investigative Strategies

Woodward and Bernstein employed unique investigative methods, such as using secret informants like 'Deep Throat' and developing intricate systems of signals for confidential meetings. Their approach set a new standard for journalistic inquiry in political scandals.

The use of a potted plant with a red flag for signaling the need for a meeting is a specific example of their innovative strategies.

Comprehensive Source Verification

The reporters adopted a rigorous source verification process, ensuring that each claim was confirmed by at least two independent sources. This meticulous approach minimized errors and enhanced the credibility of their findings.

The confirmation of Haldeman's involvement through three independent sources exemplifies this method.

Impact of Media Pressure on Investigations

The persistent coverage by the Washington Post influenced other investigations and added pressure on authorities, demonstrating the power of media to sway public opinion and judicial outcomes in high-stakes political cases.

The Post's reporting prompted further investigations by the Senate and contributed to setting the stage for the impeachment process.

Challenges in Political Reporting

Woodward and Bernstein faced numerous challenges, including threats, stonewalling by officials, and the high risk of legal repercussions, illuminating the complexities and dangers journalists face when uncovering political corruption.

Attempts to contact grand jurors and the ethical dilemmas faced such as potential jail time for contempt of court highlight these challenges.

Role of Political Power in Media Manipulation

The Nixon administration's attempts to discredit and manipulate media through counterattacks and misinformation campaigns revealed the extent to which political entities can influence public perception and media freedom.

The White House's coordinated attacks on the Washington Post and its attempts to undermine the credibility of the paper's reporting.

Journalistic Persistence and Resilience

Despite significant obstacles, Woodward and Bernstein's determination to uncover the truth about the Watergate scandal showcases the critical role of resilience and persistence in investigative journalism.

Their continuous effort to piece together the Watergate puzzle, even when leads dried up or faced intense criticism, demonstrates their commitment.

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Innovative Investigative Strategies

Woodward and Bernstein pioneered groundbreaking investigative techniques to uncover the Watergate scandal. They relied on covert informants, like the mysterious "Deep Throat", to obtain sensitive information. This allowed them to access insider knowledge that was otherwise inaccessible.

The reporters also developed intricate systems of signals to arrange clandestine meetings with their sources. For example, they used a potted plant with a red flag to discreetly indicate the need for a confidential encounter. These innovative communication methods enabled Woodward and Bernstein to gather information safely and discretely.

Their unconventional investigative approach set a new standard for journalism. By leveraging secret sources and covert meeting protocols, they were able to penetrate the highest levels of government and expose a major political scandal. This pioneering work demonstrated the power of dogged, unconventional reporting to hold those in power accountable.

Here are specific examples from the context that illustrate the key insight about Woodward and Bernstein's innovative investigative strategies:

  • Using secret informants like 'Deep Throat': The context describes Woodward's relationship with the anonymous source "Deep Throat", who provided him with valuable information and guidance. For example, Deep Throat arranged a secret meeting with Woodward in a parking garage, where they could discuss the investigation confidentially.

  • Developing intricate systems of signals for confidential meetings: The context explains how Woodward and Deep Throat established a method for Woodward to call and request a secret meeting in the garage without identifying himself. This allowed them to communicate discreetly.

  • The use of a potted plant with a red flag for signaling the need for a meeting: This specific example illustrates their innovative approach to maintaining the confidentiality of their sources and communications. The potted plant with a red flag was a unique signal they used to indicate when Woodward needed to meet with Deep Throat.

  • Tracing Segretti's movements using credit card records: When investigating Donald Segretti's political sabotage activities, Bernstein renewed a contact at a credit card company to obtain Segretti's travel records, which provided important circumstantial evidence about his movements and activities.

These examples demonstrate how Woodward and Bernstein went beyond traditional journalistic methods to uncover information and maintain the confidentiality of their sources, setting a new standard for investigative reporting on political scandals.

Comprehensive Source Verification

The reporters employed a rigorous source verification process to ensure the accuracy and credibility of their findings. They meticulously confirmed each claim with at least two independent sources, minimizing the risk of errors. This comprehensive approach is exemplified by their efforts to verify Haldeman's involvement through three separate sources.

By relying on multiple, corroborating sources, the reporters were able to build a robust and reliable narrative. This meticulous verification process was crucial in enhancing the credibility of their reporting, even on sensitive and politically charged topics. The reporters understood the importance of verifying information from diverse and trustworthy sources to uphold the integrity of their journalism.

Here are specific examples from the context that support the key insight about the reporters' rigorous source verification process:

  • The reporters sought confirmation from multiple sources on Haldeman's involvement in the secret fund:

    • They asked Hugh Sloan if Haldeman was one of the five people authorized to approve disbursements from the fund, and Sloan responded "Yes."
    • They then went back to their federal sources who confirmed once more that Haldeman was authorized to make payments from the fund.
    • One source even went so far as to say "this is a Haldeman operation" and that Haldeman had "insulated" himself by dealing with the fund through an intermediary.
  • When the reporters made a mistake in their initial Haldeman story, Deep Throat strongly criticized them, emphasizing the need to "be sure you're on the most solid ground" when going after someone like Haldeman. This underscores the reporters' commitment to thorough verification.

  • The reporters also sought confirmation from the FBI agent they had previously spoken to, but he refused to discuss the matter further, demonstrating the reporters' efforts to cross-check information from different sources.

  • When Sloan's lawyer denied the reporters' story, the reporters tried to get clarification, showing their determination to resolve the discrepancy and ensure accuracy.

The key point is that the reporters employed a meticulous, multi-source verification process to ensure the credibility and reliability of their findings, even when faced with contradictory information or pushback from sources.

Impact of Media Pressure on Investigations

The Washington Post's relentless coverage of the Watergate scandal exerted immense pressure on authorities and shaped the trajectory of the investigations. Their reporting compelled further scrutiny by the Senate and laid the groundwork for the eventual impeachment process.

The Post's meticulous journalism thrust the scandal into the national spotlight, making it impossible for officials to ignore or downplay the allegations. This public attention forced the hand of lawmakers and law enforcement, who had to take decisive action to address the growing controversy.

The newspaper's influence was so profound that it even impacted the messaging and strategies of political figures. Opponents of the President, like Senator McGovern, were able to leverage the Post's reporting to bolster their own Watergate-related narratives and criticisms. Conversely, the administration's allies, such as Spiro Agnew, felt compelled to aggressively counter the Post's accounts.

Ultimately, the Washington Post's unwavering commitment to uncovering the truth demonstrated the power of the media to shape high-stakes political investigations. Their reporting was a driving force that propelled the Watergate scandal forward, forcing authorities to confront the growing evidence and public outcry.

Here are specific examples from the context that support the key insight about the impact of media pressure on investigations:

  • The Washington Post's reporting on the FBI Director Patrick Gray's testimony undermined the White House's claims of innocence and helped establish the credibility of the Post's investigation. Gray's candid admissions about the FBI's ineptitude and John Dean's potential lies "became increasingly plausible" due to the Post's coverage.

  • When the Post reported that funds for the Watergate espionage operation were controlled by John Mitchell's assistants, the statement from the Committee for the Re-election of the President did not directly deny the details, indicating the Post's reporting was putting pressure on the administration.

  • The Post's reporting prompted Senator George McGovern to hold a press conference calling the Watergate investigation a "whitewash" and saying it involved the "very morality of our leaders." This shows how the Post's coverage was shaping the broader political narrative around Watergate.

  • The Post reporters' nighttime visits to Campaign for the Re-election of the President employees demonstrated the level of fear and pressure the staff was under due to the Post's persistent investigation. Employees were "literally trembling" and afraid to speak with the reporters.

  • The White House's aggressive response, including subpoenas against the Post's reporters and news executives, as well as discussions about using the courts and a grand jury to "take the Washington Post down a notch," illustrates how the Post's reporting had become a major threat to the administration.

In summary, the context shows how the Washington Post's dogged reporting on Watergate added immense pressure on authorities and shaped the broader political narrative, demonstrating the power of the media to influence high-stakes political investigations.

Challenges in Political Reporting

Woodward and Bernstein navigated a treacherous landscape as they investigated political corruption. They faced threats, with a colleague warning that "everyone's life is in danger" due to potential surveillance. Officials stonewalled their inquiries, refusing to provide information or confirm details. The reporters also risked legal repercussions, as evidenced by a journalist being jailed for refusing to turn over notes and recordings.

These challenges illuminated the complexities and dangers journalists face when uncovering wrongdoing at the highest levels of government. Contacting grand jurors, a key source of information, put the reporters at risk of being accused of "jury tampering." The ethical dilemmas were stark - should they prioritize protecting their sources or fully exposing the truth? These pressures tested the reporters' resolve and forced them to make difficult decisions that could have serious consequences.

Despite the obstacles, Woodward and Bernstein persisted in their pursuit of the facts. Their experience highlights the vital role of a free press in holding the powerful accountable, even when doing so puts reporters in the crosshairs. Navigating such a treacherous landscape requires immense courage, integrity, and a commitment to uncovering the truth, no matter the personal cost.

Here are specific examples from the context that illustrate the key insight about the challenges Woodward and Bernstein faced in their political reporting:

  • Attempts to contact grand jurors: Woodward and Bernstein "had sailed around [the law] and exposed others to danger" when they visited grand jurors, leading them to "dodge, evade, misrepresent, suggest and intimidate" to cover up their actions.

  • Ethical dilemmas and legal risks: When Lawrence, the Los Angeles Times bureau chief, refused to turn over reporter notes and tapes to the court, he was "held in contempt and ordered jailed" by Judge Sirica, highlighting the serious legal consequences journalists could face.

  • Threats and intimidation: CRP employees were "literally trembling" and pleaded with Bernstein to "leave me alone" when he visited their homes, showing the intense pressure and fear they faced.

  • Stonewalling by officials: When Bernstein pressed a Justice Department attorney about investigating the President's involvement, the attorney angrily replied "You don't know what you're talking about" and refused to provide any information.

  • High-stakes nature of the story: Bernstein grappled with the "possibility that the President of the United States was the head ratfucker", underscoring the gravity and risk of their reporting on the President.

These examples illustrate the multitude of challenges Woodward and Bernstein navigated, from legal threats to intimidation by officials, that illuminated the complexities and dangers of uncovering political corruption as journalists.

Role of Political Power in Media Manipulation

The Nixon administration aggressively sought to control the narrative and undermine media credibility. They launched coordinated attacks against the Washington Post, aiming to discredit the paper's reporting on the Watergate scandal. This revealed the immense power that political entities can wield over public perception and media freedom.

The White House employed a range of tactics to manipulate the media, including false press leaks, planting spies, and investigating reporters' private lives. They were willing to subvert the electoral process through these underhanded methods, demonstrating a blatant disregard for democratic principles.

This case study highlights the fragility of press independence in the face of determined political interference. It serves as a cautionary tale about the dangers of unchecked abuse of power and the critical need to safeguard the media's role as a watchdog of the government. Maintaining a free and uncompromised press is essential for a healthy democracy.

Here are specific examples from the context that support the key insight about the Nixon administration's attempts to discredit and manipulate the media:

  • White House Denials: When the Washington Post first reported on the Watergate break-in, President Nixon publicly stated "The White House has had no involvement whatever in this particular incident." This was an attempt to dismiss and discredit the Post's reporting.

  • Subpoenas of Reporters: The Committee for the Re-election of the President (CRP) issued subpoenas to Washington Post reporters Bernstein, Woodward, and others, in an effort to obtain their notes and sources, which would undermine their ability to report on the story.

  • Attacks on the Post's Credibility: The White House officials were said to have generated "as much hatred of the Post as anything" in response to how the Post presented a story about the FBI director's testimony, making them look like "mug shots."

  • Wiretapping of Reporters: The Nixon administration conducted widespread wiretapping of journalists and government officials under the guise of "national security", in an attempt to trace and stop leaks of information to the media.

  • Planting Misinformation: The "Canuck Letter" was a fake letter published in a pro-Nixon newspaper, which falsely accused a Democratic candidate of making derogatory comments, in an effort to undermine his campaign.

These examples illustrate how the Nixon administration actively sought to discredit, intimidate, and manipulate the media through denials, legal pressure, and the dissemination of misinformation. This reveals the extent to which political power can be leveraged to influence public perception and restrict media freedom.

Journalistic Persistence and Resilience

Woodward and Bernstein's relentless pursuit of the truth about the Watergate scandal showcases the critical role of resilience and persistence in investigative journalism. Despite facing significant obstacles, such as drying up leads and intense criticism, the reporters refused to give up. Their continuous effort to piece together the complex Watergate puzzle demonstrates their unwavering commitment to uncovering the facts, no matter the challenges. This determination to get to the bottom of the story, even when the path forward was unclear, is a hallmark of exceptional investigative journalism. Woodward and Bernstein's refusal to be deterred, even in the face of setbacks, highlights the vital importance of resilience and persistence in the pursuit of the truth.

Here are specific examples from the context that support the key insight about the critical role of resilience and persistence in investigative journalism:

  • Overcoming Initial Skepticism: When Woodward was first called in about the Watergate burglary, he thought it was just "a burglary at the local Democratic headquarters" and not a major story. However, he persisted in investigating the story, even when it seemed mundane at first.

  • Navigating Competing Egos: Woodward and Bernstein had to overcome their own rivalry and egos to effectively collaborate on the story. Despite Bernstein's initial doubts about Woodward's abilities, they were able to put aside their differences and work together.

  • Pushing for Stronger Reporting: When Woodward was hesitant to publish a story about Mitchell and Colson's involvement, Bernstein argued passionately that they should report the conclusions of the investigators, even without definitive proof. This shows their resilience in pursuing the story.

  • Seeking Out New Leads: When the reporters felt they were "running out of steam", Woodward reached out to Senator Ervin, hoping to uncover new information that could aid the investigation, demonstrating their persistence.

  • Overcoming Denials and Obfuscation: When the Committee for the Re-election of the President issued denials about the secret fund, Bernstein "studied the statement and underlined the soft spots", refusing to be deterred by the committee's attempts to mislead.

  • Navigating Ethical Dilemmas: Woodward grappled with the ethical quandary of whether to share information with Senator Ervin's investigation, showing his commitment to upholding journalistic principles while also seeking the truth.

These examples illustrate how Woodward and Bernstein's resilience, persistence, and dedication to uncovering the truth were critical to their success in reporting on the Watergate scandal, despite significant obstacles and opposition.


Let's take a look at some key quotes from "All the President's Men" that resonated with readers.

To those who will decide if he should be tried for 'high crimes and misdemeanors' -the House of Representatives- And to those who would sit in judgment at such a trial if the House impeaches -the Senate- And to the man who would preside at such an impeachment trial -the Chief Justice of the United States, Warren Burger- And to the nation... The President said, 'I want you to know that I have no intention whatever of ever walking away from the job that the American people elected me to do for the people of the United States.'

  • Carl Bernstein, Bob Woodward

The speaker is addressing key figures in the government, including lawmakers and the chief justice, as well as the nation at large. They assert their commitment to remaining in office, despite potential allegations of wrongdoing, and vow to continue serving the people who elected them. This statement conveys a sense of defiance and determination, implying that the speaker will not back down or abandon their duties.

June 17, 1972. Nine o'clock Saturday morning. Early for the telephone. Woodward fumbled for the receiver and snapped awake. The city editor of the Washington Post was on the line. Five men had been arrested earlier that morning in a burglary attempt at Democratic headquarters, carrying photographic equipment and electronic gear. Could he come in?

A sudden and unexpected phone call interrupts a peaceful morning, requesting the journalist's immediate attention. The caller shares breaking news about a surprising incident - an attempted break-in at a political party's headquarters. This event sets in motion a chain of events that will unravel a complex web of deceit and corruption.

Bernstein passed the reporters’ information about Segretti on to Meyers, who was staking out Segretti’s apartment and talking to his neighbors. Marina del Rey, where Segretti lived, was on the water and, if you believed the ads, represented the ultimate in swinging-singles living. Lots of sailing, saunas, mixed-doubles tennis, pools, parties, candlelight, long-stemmed glasses, Caesar salads, tanned bodies, mixed double-triple-multiple kinkiness in scented sandalwood splendor.

A picturesque coastal town is described, where a carefree and luxurious lifestyle is supposedly enjoyed by its residents. The atmosphere is one of leisure and indulgence, with activities like sailing, tennis, and social gatherings being prominent features. The setting is also associated with a sense of sensuality and romantic freedom, evoking feelings of relaxation and hedonism.

Comprehension Questions

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How well do you understand the key insights in "All the President's Men"? Find out by answering the questions below. Try to answer the question yourself before revealing the answer! Mark the questions as done once you've answered them.

1. What role do secretive informants play in investigative journalism?
2. How can unconventional communication systems benefit investigative journalism?
3. What are the benefits of using covert signals in journalism?
4. Why is confidentiality important in investigative journalism?
5. How does unconventional reporting contribute to holding power accountable?
6. What is the advantage of confirming information with multiple independent sources before reporting?
7. Why is it important for journalists to verify information from diverse and trustworthy sources?
8. How does a meticulous verification process impact the reliability of a journalistic report?
9. What should journalists do when they receive contradictory information from their sources?
10. How did intense reporting by a major newspaper impact the trajectory of a high-profile political scandal?
11. What role did media coverage play in influencing the actions of lawmakers and law enforcement during a major scandal?
12. How did the thorough coverage of a political scandal by a newspaper affect the strategies of political figures?
13. What demonstrates the influence of persistent journalistic efforts on high-stakes investigations?
14. What were some of the legal risks that reporters faced when investigating political corruption?
15. How did attempts to contact key sources of information put reporters at risk?
16. What ethical dilemmas did reporters encounter while covering high-stakes political stories?
17. How did officials react when approached by reporters during investigations?
18. What indicates the magnitude of the risks and pressures reporters face when exposing political corruption?
19. What is the impact of political power on media freedom based on aggressive tactics to control narratives?
20. Why is it crucial for a democracy to maintain a free and independent press?
21. How do false narratives and media manipulations affect public perception?
22. What qualities are essential for a journalist when their investigation faces significant barriers to progress?
23. How does the continued effort in investigating complex issues contribute to the effectiveness of investigative journalism?
24. What impact does determination have when sources or leads begin to dry up during an investigation?
25. Why is it important for journalists to not be deterred by setbacks when investigating?

Action Questions

0 / 6

"Knowledge without application is useless," Bruce Lee said. Answer the questions below to practice applying the key insights from "All the President's Men". Mark the questions as done once you've answered them.

1. How can you employ discreet communication methods in your personal or professional life to enhance privacy and security?
2. How can you implement a multi-source verification process in your daily information consumption to minimize the risk of misinformation?
3. How can you utilize factual reporting and detailed investigations to enhance transparency and accountability in your local community?
4. How can you use your skills or platforms to advocate for greater transparency and accountability in your community or fields of interest?
5. How can you actively discern true information from misinformation in current political news coverage?
6. How can you demonstrate persistence in your daily tasks or projects, even when faced with challenges or setbacks?

Chapter Notes

Chapter 1: Break-in at Democratic Headquarters

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • The Watergate Burglary: On June 17, 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. They were carrying photographic equipment and electronic gear, suggesting they were attempting to bug the offices.

  • The Suspects: The five men arrested were Bernard L. Barker, Frank A. Sturgis, Virgilio R. Gonzalez, Eugenio R. Martinez, and James W. McCord, Jr. McCord identified himself as a former CIA employee, which surprised the judge presiding over the initial court hearing.

  • Woodward and Bernstein's Investigation: Reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of the Washington Post began investigating the burglary, uncovering connections between the suspects and the Committee for the Re-election of the President (CRP), as well as a White House consultant named Howard Hunt.

  • Hunt's Connections: Woodward and Bernstein found that Hunt's name and phone number were in the address books of two of the Watergate burglars. They also discovered that Hunt had previously worked for the CIA and was a White House consultant, though his exact role was unclear.

  • Potential White House Involvement: The reporters' findings suggested a possible connection between the Watergate burglars and the Nixon administration, raising questions about the administration's involvement in the break-in. Democratic Party chairman Lawrence O'Brien filed a civil lawsuit against the CRP, citing the "potential involvement" of White House officials.

  • Initial White House Response: White House press secretary Ronald Ziegler initially dismissed the Watergate break-in as a "third-rate burglary attempt" not worthy of further White House comment, suggesting the administration did not take the matter seriously.

Chapter 2: Bernstein Investigates Charles Colson

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • Colson and Hunt's Investigations: Charles Colson and Howard Hunt, two White House aides, were conducting investigations into the private lives of Senator Kennedy and other political figures. This suggests that the White House was actively trying to gather damaging information on its political opponents.

  • Tracing the $25,000 Check: A $25,000 cashier's check, made out to Kenneth H. Dahlberg, was deposited into the bank account of one of the Watergate burglars, Bernard L. Barker. Dahlberg, who was the Midwest finance chairman for Nixon's re-election campaign, acknowledged that the money was a campaign contribution that he had turned over to the campaign committee.

  • Gerstein and Dardis' Investigation: The state's attorney's office in Miami, led by Richard E. Gerstein and Martin Dardis, was conducting its own investigation into the Watergate break-in, including subpoenaing phone and bank records related to the suspects. This suggests that the federal investigation was not the only one looking into the matter.

  • Reporters' Challenges: Bernstein and Woodward faced numerous challenges in their reporting, including being stonewalled by White House and campaign officials, and having to navigate the complex web of information and misinformation surrounding the Watergate scandal.

  • Significance of the $25,000 Check: The discovery of the $25,000 check, and its connection to the Nixon campaign, was a significant development in the Watergate story, as it suggested a direct link between the break-in and the highest levels of the Nixon administration.

Chapter 3: The Watergate Scandal Unfolds

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • Watergate Scandal Unfolding: The chapter details the unfolding of the Watergate scandal, with the Washington Post reporters Woodward and Bernstein uncovering evidence of a cover-up and potential involvement of higher-level officials in the Nixon campaign.

  • Stans' Slush Fund: The chapter reveals the existence of a secret slush fund of at least $350,000 maintained by Maurice Stans, the finance chairman of the Nixon campaign. This fund was used to make undisclosed payments to individuals, including Gordon Liddy, who were involved in the Watergate break-in.

  • Involvement of Mitchell's Assistants: The Bookkeeper, an anonymous source, provides evidence that John Mitchell's principal assistants, including Jeb Magruder, were aware of and involved in the Watergate espionage operation. The Bookkeeper indicates that the money from Stans' slush fund was used to pay these individuals.

  • Obstruction of the Investigation: The chapter suggests that the federal investigation into Watergate was being obstructed, with the Justice Department and FBI seemingly unwilling to pursue evidence that implicated higher-level officials in the Nixon campaign. The indictments handed down by the grand jury were seen as limited in scope, failing to address the central questions about the purpose and sponsorship of the alleged espionage.

  • Intimidation of Potential Witnesses: The chapter depicts a climate of fear and intimidation at the Nixon campaign headquarters, with employees being reluctant to speak to the reporters out of concern for their jobs and safety. The campaign's managers were seen as closely monitoring and potentially retaliating against those who provided information to the investigators or the press.

  • Woodward and Bernstein's Investigative Approach: The chapter highlights the investigative methods used by Woodward and Bernstein, including their nighttime visits to campaign employees, their efforts to build trust and rapport with sources, and their meticulous record-keeping and collaboration in piecing together the complex web of information surrounding the Watergate scandal.

Chapter 4: Woodward's Source in the Executive Branch

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • Woodward's Anonymous Source "Deep Throat": Woodward had an anonymous source in the Executive Branch who had access to information at the Committee for the Re-election of the President (CRP) and the White House. This source, known as "Deep Throat", would only be contacted on very important occasions and Woodward had promised to never identify him or quote him directly.

  • Signals for Meeting Deep Throat: Woodward and Deep Throat had a system of signals to arrange their meetings. Woodward would move a flower pot with a red flag on his balcony to indicate he needed to meet, and Deep Throat would check for this signal each day. Alternatively, Deep Throat would indicate a meeting time by circling a page number in Woodward's New York Times.

  • Deep Throat's Warnings: Deep Throat warned Woodward that the FBI and White House were determined to find out how the Post was getting its information and stop it. He also said the stakes in Watergate were much higher than anyone outside perceived, and made vague references to the CIA and national security.

  • Revelations from the Bookkeeper: The Bookkeeper, an anonymous source at CRP, confirmed that funds from a secret account in Maurice Stans' safe had been used to finance the Watergate bugging and other "intelligence-gathering activities" against the Democrats. She revealed that Jeb Magruder and Bart Porter had each received over $50,000 from this fund.

  • Sloan's Testimony: Former CRP treasurer Hugh Sloan told Bernstein that the secret fund contained over $700,000 and that the records relating to it had been destroyed after the Watergate arrests. Sloan believed that John Mitchell, Mardian, and LaRue were aware of and involved in the Watergate operation.

  • Obstruction of Justice: Sloan and the Bookkeeper indicated that Mardian and LaRue had directed a "massive housecleaning" at CRP, destroying records and instructing employees to "hold ranks" and avoid certain areas when questioned by investigators. This suggested an organized attempt to conceal the facts of Watergate.

  • Difficulty Verifying Information: The reporters faced challenges in verifying some of the more serious allegations, as the FBI interview reports (302s) they had access to contained unsubstantiated information. They adopted a policy of only publishing claims that were confirmed by at least two sources.

Chapter 5: Bernstein and Woodward Investigate Mitchell

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • Mitchell's Involvement in the Secret Fund: According to sources involved in the Watergate investigation, John N. Mitchell, while serving as U.S. Attorney General, personally controlled a secret Republican fund that was used to gather information about the Democrats. Mitchell approved withdrawals from this fund beginning in the spring of 1971, almost a year before he left the Justice Department to become President Nixon's campaign manager.

  • Other Individuals with Control over the Secret Fund: Four other individuals were later authorized to approve payments from the secret fund: former Secretary of Commerce Maurice H. Stans, Jeb Stuart Magruder (manager of the Nixon campaign before Mitchell), a high White House official now involved in the campaign, and a campaign aide outside of Washington.

  • Sloan's Testimony and the Reporters' Investigation: Hugh Sloan, the Bookkeeper, provided detailed information to the reporters about the secret fund, including how it operated and the individuals involved in authorizing withdrawals. The reporters were able to corroborate much of Sloan's account through their own investigation and sources.

  • Haldeman's Potential Involvement: The reporters strongly suspected that H.R. Haldeman, the President's chief of staff, was the high White House official with control over the secret fund, based on Sloan's testimony and their own research. However, Sloan was unwilling to confirm or deny Haldeman's involvement.

  • Mitchell's Angry Response: When the reporters contacted Mitchell to ask about their story on his involvement with the secret fund, he responded with an angry, profanity-laced denial, suggesting that the reporters would face retaliation once the election was over. This exchange revealed the depth of Mitchell's distress at being publicly accused of wrongdoing.

  • The Los Angeles Times Scoop: The reporters were "aced out" when the Los Angeles Times published an extensive first-person account from Alfred C. Baldwin III, a former FBI agent who had participated in the Watergate bugging operation. This story provided significant new details about the Watergate break-in that the Post reporters had not yet uncovered.

  • The Incorrect Reporting on Odle and Timmons: The Post reporters published a story stating that Baldwin had named Robert Odle and William E. Timmons as recipients of the wiretap memos, but this information later proved to be incorrect. The reporters had rushed the story into print without fully verifying the details, leading to unfair accusations against these individuals.

Chapter 6: A Government Lawyer's Tip

  • Segretti's Recruitment Efforts: Donald Segretti, a lawyer, approached several former Army captains, including Alex Shipley, Kenneth Griffiths, Roger Lee Nixt, and Peter Dixon, to recruit them for an "undercover political espionage and sabotage" operation on behalf of the Nixon re-election campaign. Segretti proposed various tactics, such as disrupting Democratic rallies and spreading misinformation, to undermine the Democratic primary campaigns.

  • Connections to the White House: The reporters discovered that Segretti had connections to several members of the Nixon White House, including Ron Ziegler, Dwight Chapin, Bart Porter, and Gordon Strachan. This suggested that the "undercover political espionage and sabotage" operation was coordinated and directed by the White House.

  • Ratfucking: The term "ratfucking" was used by the "USC Mafia" (the group of former USC students working in the Nixon White House) to refer to their tactics of infiltration, sabotage, and misinformation directed at the Democratic campaigns.

  • Scope of the Operation: According to Deep Throat, the White House and the Committee to Re-Elect the President (CRP) had more than 50 people working on various "games" and "intelligence-gathering" activities to undermine the Democratic campaigns, including bugging, following people, planting false information, and stealing documents.

  • Involvement of Higher-Ups: Deep Throat confirmed that the "undercover political espionage and sabotage" operation went "all the way to the top," implying that it was directed by the highest levels of the Nixon administration, including the President himself.

  • Limitations of the Watergate Investigation: The FBI and the grand jury investigation had been focused solely on the Watergate break-in and had ignored the broader scope of the White House's "undercover political espionage and sabotage" activities against the Democratic campaigns.

  • Threat to the Reporters: Deep Throat warned the reporters that the White House wanted to "single out the Post" and go to court to get at their sources, indicating the high-stakes nature of their investigation.

Chapter 7: Canuck Letter and White House Involvement

  • Clawson's Admission and Denial: Ken Clawson, a former Post colleague, initially admitted to Marilyn Berger that he had written the "Canuck Letter" aimed at discrediting Senator Muskie's presidential campaign. However, Clawson later denied this and claimed it was a misunderstanding, leading to a back-and-forth between him and the Post reporters.

  • Segretti's Connections to the White House: The reporters uncovered evidence that Donald Segretti, a political operative engaged in sabotage and espionage against Democratic candidates, was connected to and funded by the Nixon White House, including through contacts with Dwight Chapin, the President's appointments secretary, and Herbert Kalmbach, the President's personal lawyer.

  • Muskie Campaign Sabotage: The reporters confirmed numerous instances of sabotage and disruption targeting Senator Muskie's presidential campaign, including forged letters, harassed events, and late-night phone calls, though the Muskie campaign itself was also seen as contributing to its own downfall.

  • Lack of Prosecution by the Justice Department: The reporters discovered that the Justice Department had information about Segretti's connections to the White House and the broader campaign of espionage and sabotage, but had narrowly focused the Watergate investigation only on the break-in itself, ignoring the larger conspiracy.

  • Woodward and Bernstein's Sourcing and Editing Process: The chapter provides insight into the reporters' sourcing and editing process, including their efforts to verify information, protect the anonymity of sources, and navigate the concerns of their editors, particularly regarding the strength of the evidence and the potential implications of the stories.

  • White House Reaction and Non-Denial: The White House's reaction to the reporters' stories, characterized by non-denial and evasive statements, was seen by the reporters as further confirmation of the accuracy of their reporting.

Chapter 8: Bernstein's Saturday Night Adventure

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • Time Magazine's Story: Time magazine published a story that provided additional details on the Segretti-Chapin connection, including that Chapin had hired Segretti and that another White House aide, Gordon Strachan, was also involved in hiring Segretti. The story also revealed that Segretti had been paid more than $35,000 by Herbert Kalmbach, the President's lawyer.

  • Kalmbach's Role: Woodward and Bernstein discovered that Kalmbach, who had resigned as deputy finance chairman of the Nixon campaign, had control over a "Special Projects" fund that was used for espionage and political sabotage activities. Sloan, a former Nixon campaign official, revealed that Kalmbach had distributed money from this fund, far in excess of the amount received by Segretti, but he would not disclose how much or to whom.

  • Ehrlichman's TV Appearance: John Ehrlichman, a high-ranking White House aide, appeared on TV and downplayed the allegations of political espionage and sabotage, suggesting that such activities were common in American politics. Woodward and Bernstein concluded that Ehrlichman was the only White House aide "clean enough on Watergate" to be sent out to address the media.

  • White House Counterattack: The White House launched a coordinated counterattack against the Washington Post's reporting, with Ron Ziegler, the White House press secretary, and Senator Bob Dole, the Republican national chairman, criticizing the Post's use of anonymous sources and "unsubstantiated charges." The White House also accused the McGovern campaign of engaging in "dirty tactics" and "mud-slinging."

  • Bradlee's Warnings: Ben Bradlee, the editor of the Washington Post, warned Bernstein and Woodward to be extremely careful in their personal lives and communications, as the White House was playing "the hardest hardball that's ever been played in this town." He advised them to be cautious about who they talked to, what they said on the phone, and to get a lawyer to handle any future tax matters.

  • New York Times Reporting: The New York Times obtained telephone records showing that Donald Segretti's phone or credit card had been used for numerous calls to the White House, Dwight Chapin's home, and Howard Hunt's home and office, undermining the White House's attempts to dismiss the allegations as "hearsay" and "innuendo."

  • Ziegler's Evasive Responses: In a press briefing, Ron Ziegler repeatedly evaded direct questions about whether White House aides were involved in political espionage and sabotage, instead focusing on criticizing the media's reporting and suggesting that anyone involved in such activities would no longer be employed at the White House.

Chapter 9: Haldeman's Role in Watergate

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • Haldeman's Suspected Involvement: The reporters believed that H.R. Haldeman, the White House Chief of Staff, was the fifth person who controlled the secret fund for political espionage and sabotage. This was based on information from sources like Hugh Sloan, the former treasurer of the Committee to Re-elect the President (CRP), and a FBI agent.

  • Confirmation from Multiple Sources: The reporters had obtained confirmation of Haldeman's involvement in the secret fund from three sources - Hugh Sloan, the FBI agent, and Deep Throat. They felt confident in their reporting and were preparing to publish the story.

  • Denial by Sloan's Attorney: However, Sloan's attorney later denied that Sloan had implicated Haldeman in his grand jury testimony. This contradicted the reporters' information and created a major crisis for them.

  • Damage to Credibility: The reporters' mistake in reporting Haldeman's involvement severely damaged their credibility. It allowed the White House to go on the offensive and discredit the Post's Watergate coverage.

  • Lessons Learned: The reporters realized they had made several mistakes, including assuming too much, not verifying information thoroughly, and confronting a source's attorney in an unethical manner. They learned the importance of building a solid, well-documented case before making accusations, especially against a powerful figure like Haldeman.

  • Deep Throat's Insights: Deep Throat provided valuable insights, confirming that Haldeman was indeed behind the secret fund operations, but explaining that the reporters had moved "too high and missed", setting back the investigation. He emphasized the need for a methodical, step-by-step approach in a conspiracy investigation.

  • Importance of Caution: The chapter highlights the need for extreme caution and diligence when reporting on a high-stakes political scandal like Watergate. Even minor errors can have significant consequences and undermine the credibility of the reporting.

Chapter 10: Waiting For Election Day

  • Bernstein and Woodward's Frustration with the Lack of New Information: After the initial excitement of the Segretti and Chapin-Kalmbach stories, Bernstein and Woodward hit a dry spell in their investigation, unable to develop any meaningful new stories in the weeks leading up to the election. This led to frustration and pressure from their editors to produce more stories.

  • White House's Post-Election Offensive: Following Nixon's landslide re-election victory, the White House launched an aggressive campaign against the Post, led by Charles Colson. This included personal attacks on Bradlee and the Post, as well as challenges to the Post's ownership of two television stations in Florida.

  • Attempt to Contact Grand Jurors: Desperate for new information, Bernstein and Woodward attempted to contact members of the Watergate grand jury, a risky and potentially illegal move that ultimately backfired when one of the jurors complained to the prosecutors.

  • Revelations about the "Plumbers": Through an interview with Kathleen Chenow, a former White House secretary, Bernstein and Woodward learned about the existence of a secret White House team called the "Plumbers" that investigated leaks to the media, including the Pentagon Papers and Jack Anderson columns. This provided important new details about the scope of the White House's covert operations.

  • Haldeman's Role in the Watergate Scandal: Sloan's testimony provided further evidence of Haldeman's central role in the Watergate scandal, with Haldeman effectively controlling the flow of money from the CRP slush fund to various operatives like Liddy and Kalmbach.

  • Ziegler's Acknowledgment of the Plumbers: During a White House press briefing, Ron Ziegler made the first official acknowledgment of the existence of the Plumbers team, though he denied that Liddy or Hunt were members.

  • Exclusion of the Post from White House Events: As the Post's Watergate coverage continued, the White House began excluding Post reporters, particularly Dorothy McCardle, from covering social events at the Executive Mansion, a clear attempt to retaliate against the newspaper.

Chapter 11: Reporters Summoned by Judge Sirica

  • Judge Sirica's Tough Stance: Judge Sirica took a stern and probing approach during the Watergate trial, expressing doubts about the truthfulness of the witnesses and the completeness of the government's case. He criticized the prosecutors for not asking more questions and hoped that the upcoming Senate investigation would be able to uncover the full truth about the Watergate scandal.

  • Reporters' Ethical Dilemma: Bernstein and Woodward faced an ethical dilemma when they learned about Hunt's efforts to pressure the Miami men to plead guilty. They were hesitant to publish the story, fearing that it could lead to a contempt of court charge and jeopardize their ability to continue their investigation.

  • Prosecutors' Limitations: The prosecutors, led by Earl Silbert, were unable to fully uncover the extent of the Watergate conspiracy and the involvement of higher-level officials. Their case was based primarily on the statements of Jeb Magruder and Herbert Porter, which the reporters and Judge Sirica found unconvincing.

  • Defendants' Evasive Testimony: The defendants, particularly the Miami men, provided evasive and contradictory testimony during the trial, making it difficult for the prosecutors to establish the full scope of the Watergate operation and its financing.

  • Woodward's Analytical Approach: Woodward's background in history and his ability to apply critical thinking helped him recognize the flaws in the prosecutors' case, which he felt did not align with common sense and the realities of how a political organization like the CRP would operate.

  • Reporters' Resentment: Bernstein and Woodward were resentful when they were not assigned to cover the Watergate trial, feeling that they had earned the right to do so after their extensive investigation. They feared that the Post might "write off" their earlier Watergate stories as the "excesses of the young."

  • Silbert's Distrust of Reporters: Silbert, the chief prosecutor, expressed his distrust of Bernstein and Woodward after he believed they had obtained information from a document on his desk, threatening to take legal action and restrict their access to witnesses.

  • Katharine Graham's Concerns: The Post's publisher, Katharine Graham, expressed concerns about the accuracy of the reporters' work, particularly regarding the Haldeman story, and wanted to ensure that the newspaper's reporting was on solid ground.

Chapter 12: Woodward Signals Deep Throat

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • Woodward's New Apartment and Signal System: Woodward moved to a new apartment with no balcony for the flower pot and flag, which was the previous signal system used to communicate with Deep Throat. A new signal system was adopted, where Woodward would place his yellow kitchen wastepaper basket upside down on the fire escape to signal Deep Throat.

  • Deep Throat's Piecemeal Approach: Deep Throat continued to provide information in a piecemeal fashion, rather than revealing everything he knew at once. The reporters speculated that this was to minimize his risk of being identified as the leak, or to make the game more interesting for himself.

  • Mitchell and Colson's Involvement: Deep Throat revealed that federal investigators believed former Attorney General John N. Mitchell and Charles W. Colson, special counsel to the President, had direct knowledge of the overall political espionage operation conducted by the men indicted in the Watergate case. However, the evidence was only circumstantial, and they had insulated themselves well.

  • Senate Investigation and Subpoena Power: Senator Sam J. Ervin introduced a resolution to establish a Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities to investigate Watergate. Ervin planned to subpoena the President's top aides, including Haldeman, to testify. The White House attempted to thwart this effort by proposing an amendment to broaden the investigation to cover the 1964 and 1968 campaigns, but the resolution passed unanimously.

  • Hunt's Investigations of Kennedy and Dita Beard: Woodward and Bernstein learned that Howard Hunt had investigated Edward Kennedy's personal life and visited Dita Beard in Denver, likely in an effort to discredit the ITT memo that showed a connection between ITT's promise of funds to the Republican convention and a favorable anti-trust settlement.

  • Wiretapping of Reporters and Government Officials: The reporters discovered that the Nixon administration had conducted a campaign to trace news leaks by tapping the telephones of news reporters and government officials, under the guise of national security. This wiretapping campaign was authorized by Attorney General John Mitchell and continued under acting FBI director L. Patrick Gray.

  • Subpoenas and Protecting Sources: The Committee to Re-Elect the President (CRP) issued subpoenas to the reporters, demanding that they testify and provide all their notes and materials related to Watergate. The Post's strategy was to fight the subpoenas, with the understanding that if a judge ordered the reporters to jail, the newspaper's owner, Katharine Graham, would go to jail instead to uphold the First Amendment.

Chapter 13: Uncovering a Student Spy

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • Uncovering a Student Spy for CRP: Woodward was informed by a former Army intelligence officer, Tim Butz, that a George Washington University student named Theodore Brill had been paid $150 per week by CRP to infiltrate and report on a group of Quaker demonstrators outside the White House. Brill's job was to assist in setting up the demonstrators for arrests on drug charges.

  • CRP's Deceptive Campaign Tactics: A CRP official revealed that the committee had engaged in various deceptive tactics to create the impression of public support for the President's decision to mine Haiphong harbor, including paying for fake telegrams and advertisements. The official also disclosed that CRP had rigged a WTTG television poll on the mining decision by having employees send in thousands of fake ballots.

  • White House's Aggressive Response to Leaks: Deep Throat informed Woodward that the White House had launched an aggressive campaign to stop news leaks about Watergate, including discussions about using the courts and a grand jury investigation. The President was said to be "wild" about the leaks and wanted to "take the Washington Post down a notch."

  • Gray's Nomination and the Watergate Investigation: Deep Throat revealed that FBI Director L. Patrick Gray had gone to the White House in early February and threatened that "all hell could break loose" if he was not allowed to stay in the job permanently and "keep the lid on" the Watergate investigation. This led the President to quickly nominate Gray, despite opposition from some top White House officials.

  • Revelations from the Gray Hearings: The Gray confirmation hearings revealed several significant developments, including that John Dean had received the contents of Howard Hunt's safe and that Dwight Chapin had informed Herbert Kalmbach to pay Donald Segretti for undercover activities. These revelations undermined the White House's claims of innocence and helped establish the credibility of the Washington Post's reporting.

  • Missing Notebooks from Hunt's Safe: It was discovered that two notebooks belonging to Howard Hunt had gone missing after being turned over to John Dean. The notebooks were believed to contain valuable information that could have implicated higher-ups in the Watergate conspiracy, leading to speculation that someone had intentionally made them disappear.

Chapter 14: McCord Discloses Watergate Secrets

  • McCord's Testimony: McCord testified that there was perjury and political pressure to keep the Watergate conspirators silent. He also claimed that others were involved in the Watergate operation beyond those already identified.

  • Magruder's Cooperation: Magruder, the former deputy campaign manager, went to the prosecutors and testified that Mitchell and Dean were involved in approving and planning the Watergate bugging operation. He also said that Mitchell and Dean arranged to pay off the Watergate conspirators to keep them silent.

  • White House Manipulation: The White House attempted to manipulate the media narrative around Watergate, such as by claiming a change in policy on executive privilege that was not actually new. The reporters recognized these tactics and worked to correct the record.

  • Haldeman and Dean's Resignations: Deep Throat informed Woodward that Haldeman and Dean would soon be resigning from the White House due to the unfolding Watergate scandal. This information was later confirmed by other sources.

  • Obstruction of Justice: The investigation shifted focus from the Watergate break-in itself to the obstruction of justice by administration officials involved in the cover-up. John Dean was reported to be ready to implicate others if indicted.

  • Reporters' Relationships with Sources: The reporters maintained relationships with a variety of sources, including those within the White House, the Committee for the Re-election of the President, and the Justice Department. These sources provided them with key information and insights into the unfolding Watergate scandal.

  • Reporters' Collaboration: Woodward and Bernstein worked closely together, sharing information and coordinating their reporting efforts. They also collaborated with other Post reporters and editors, such as Bradlee, to ensure the accuracy and impact of their Watergate coverage.

Chapter 15: Watergate Developments Unfold

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • John Dean's Defiant Stance: Dean issued a statement refusing to make any public comments about the Watergate case, but indicating that he welcomed the opportunity to tell his side of the story to the grand jury. This represented a shift from his previous passive stance.

  • Dean's Allegations Against Haldeman and Ehrlichman: According to Dean's associates, Dean claimed that Haldeman and Ehrlichman were the ones who orchestrated the cover-up, not Dean himself. Dean said he was just following their orders and that they had prior knowledge of the bugging.

  • Mitchell's Acknowledgment of Involvement: Former Attorney General John Mitchell publicly acknowledged for the first time that he had attended meetings where plans to bug the Democrats were discussed, though he claimed he had rejected such plans.

  • Colson's Warnings to Nixon: Colson's associates claimed that Colson had warned Nixon on multiple occasions that Dean and Mitchell were involved in a cover-up, but Nixon refused to act on these warnings.

  • Dean's Meeting with Nixon on March 21: According to Dean's associate, Dean told Nixon on March 21 that there was a "cancer" eating away at the presidency and that Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Dean himself would have to cooperate with prosecutors and face the consequences. However, Nixon was later persuaded by Haldeman and Ehrlichman to sacrifice Dean instead.

  • Destruction of Sensitive Documents: It was revealed that former FBI Director Patrick Gray had destroyed documents from Howard Hunt's White House safe, which reportedly contained "political dynamite" that could have done more damage than the Watergate bugging itself.

  • Ellsberg Psychiatrist Burglary: Prosecutors revealed that Hunt and Liddy had supervised the burglary of the office of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist in 1971, indicating a broader pattern of illegal activities.

  • Dean's Potential Implication of Nixon: According to a senior presidential aide, Dean was planning to testify that Nixon was involved in the cover-up, potentially implicating the President as a "felon".

Chapter 16: White House Aides Resign from Office

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • Deep Throat's Warnings: Deep Throat warned Woodward that the reporters' lives were in danger due to electronic surveillance by the CIA, and that the cover-up was mainly to protect covert national security activities, not just the Watergate break-in. He also revealed that Dean had been threatened by the President and that the cover-up had cost around $1 million.

  • Kissinger's Involvement: Woodward confronted Kissinger about authorizing wiretaps on his own aides, and Kissinger's response was evasive, suggesting he may have been involved in the wiretapping program.

  • Colson's Alleged Attempt to Break into Bremer's Apartment: Woodward was told that Colson had ordered Howard Hunt to break into Arthur Bremer's apartment after the attempted assassination of George Wallace, possibly to find evidence linking Bremer to left-wing causes. Colson denied this allegation.

  • Butterfield's Revelation of the White House Taping System: A Senate committee staff member informed Woodward that Alexander Butterfield had revealed the existence of a secret taping system in the White House that recorded the President's conversations. This was a major development that could provide crucial evidence for the Watergate investigation.

  • The Post's Cautious Approach: The Post editors, including Bradlee, were initially hesitant to pursue the story about the White House taping system, fearing it could be a setup by the President to provide doctored or manufactured evidence. They wanted to gather more information before committing to the story.

  • Constitutional Constraints on Investigating the President: Bernstein learned from Justice Department sources that prosecutors were grappling with the question of how the President could be investigated, given the constitutional constraints on indicting or subpoenaing the incumbent President.

Chapter 17: Watergate Tapes Contain Deliberate Erasures

Here are the key takeaways from the chapter:

  • Watergate Tapes Contained Deliberate Erasures: Deep Throat informed Woodward that one or more of the Watergate tapes contained deliberate erasures, suggesting tampering. This was later confirmed when the President's lawyers announced that one of the tapes had an 18.5-minute gap.

  • White House Aides Doubted Nixon's Innocence: Several White House aides told Bernstein that they had learned the tapes were of poor quality and contained "gaps" in conversations, contradicting the President's claims of full disclosure. Even Nixon's closest advisers, like Henry Kissinger and Alexander Haig, had come to doubt the President's course of action.

  • Indictments of Nixon's Aides: A grand jury indicted seven of the President's former White House and campaign aides, including Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Colson, for conspiracy to obstruct justice in the Watergate cover-up. Another grand jury indicted Ehrlichman, Colson, and others for the conspiracy to burglarize the office of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist.

  • House Judiciary Committee Impeachment Investigation: The House Judiciary Committee had begun the first investigation in over 100 years into the possible impeachment of a President, based on the evidence and report submitted by the Watergate grand jury.

  • Nixon's Defiant Stance: Despite the mounting evidence against him and his aides, the President defiantly declared that he had "no intention whatever of ever walking away from the job that the American people elected me to do." He continued to defend himself, even as his inner circle was crumbling.


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