Deep Work

by Cal Newport

Troy Shu
Troy Shu
Updated at: February 23, 2024
 6 min read
Deep Work
Deep Work

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What are the big ideas?

  1. Deep work is essential for creating significant value and improving skills, while shallow work tends to be less impactful and easily replicable.
  2. Mastery of complex skills requires focused, distraction-free practice, which enhances brain efficiency and effectiveness.
  3. Strategically integrating deep work into daily routines maximizes productivity and mastery of complex tasks.
  4. Managing distractions and focusing attention is crucial for maintaining high performance and reducing ineffective task-switching.
  5. Choosing the right tools and technologies, aligned with personal and professional goals, enhances the effectiveness of deep work.


Deep Work and Its Value

  • Deep Work: Professional activities performed in a state of distraction-free concentration that push your cognitive capabilities to their limit. These efforts create new value, improve your skill, and are hard to replicate.
  • “Deep work is not some nostalgic affectation of writers and early-twentieth-century philosophers. It’s instead a skill that has great value today.”
  • In order to produce the absolute best stuff you’re capable of, you need to commit to deep work.
  • “Human beings, it seems, are at their best when immersed deeply in something challenging.”
  • “To build your working life around the experience of flow produced by deep work is a proven path to deep satisfaction.”

Shallow Work and Its Limitations

  • Shallow Work: Non-cognitively demanding, logistical-style tasks, often performed while distracted. These efforts tend not to create much new value in the world and are easy to replicate.
  • Newport argues if you spend enough time in a state of frenetic shallowness, you permanently reduce your capacity to perform deep work.
  • “The shallow work that increasingly dominates the time and attention of knowledge workers is less vital than it often seems in the moment.”

The Science of Skill and Performance Improvement

  • “The differences between expert performers and normal adults reflect a life-long period of deliberate effort to improve performance in a specific domain.”
  • “This new science of performance argues that you get better at a skill as you develop more myelin around the relevant neurons, allowing the corresponding circuit to fire more effortlessly and effectively.”
  • “By focusing intensely on a specific skill, you’re forcing the specific relevant circuit to fire, again and again, in isolation. This repetitive use of a specific circuit triggers cells called oligodendrocytes to begin wrapping layers of myelin around the neurons in the circuits—effectively cementing the skill.”
  • “To learn hard things quickly, you must focus intensely without distraction.”

Strategies for Integrating Deep Work

  • “I build my days around a core of carefully chosen deep work, with the shallow activities I absolutely cannot avoid batched into smaller bursts at the peripheries of my schedule.”
  • “The ability to quickly master hard things and the ability to produce at an elite level, in terms of both quality and speed, are two core abilities for thriving in today’s economy.”
  • “To produce at your peak level you need to work for extended periods with full concentration on a single task free from distraction.”

Addressing Distraction and Enhancing Focus

  • “When you switch from some Task A to another Task B, your attention doesn’t immediately follow—a residue of your attention remains stuck thinking about the original task.”
  • According to Sophie Leroy, “People experiencing attention residue after switching tasks are likely to demonstrate poor performance on that next task,” and the more intense the residue, the worse the performance.”
  • “Clarity about what matters provides clarity about what does not.”

Deep Work Philosophies and Practices

  • “You must be careful to choose a philosophy that fits your specific circumstances, as a mismatch here can derail your deep work habit before it has a chance to solidify.”
  • “To make the most out of your deep work sessions, build rituals of the same level of strictness and idiosyncrasy as the important thinkers mentioned previously.”
  • “Your ritual needs to specify a location for your deep work efforts.”
  • “Regardless of where you work, be sure to also give yourself a specific time frame to keep the session a discrete challenge and not an open-ended slog.”

The Importance of Downtime and Rest

  • “At the end of the workday, shut down your consideration of work issues until the next morning—no after-dinner e-mail check, no mental replays of conversations, and no scheming about how you’ll handle an upcoming challenge; shut down work thinking completely.”
  • Reason #1: Downtime Aids Insights
  • Reason #2: Downtime Helps Recharge the Energy Needed to Work Deeply
  • Reason #3: The Work That Evening Downtime Replaces Is Usually Not That Important

Internet and Technology in Relation to Deep Work

  • “Schedule in advance when you’ll use the Internet, and then avoid it altogether outside these times.”
  • The Craftsman Approach to Tool Selection: Identify the core factors that determine success and happiness in your professional and personal life. Adopt a tool only if its positive impacts on these factors substantially outweigh its negative impacts.
  • “After thirty days of this self-imposed network isolation, ask yourself the following two questions about each of the services you temporarily quit: Would the last thirty days have been notably better if I had been able to use this service? Did people care that I wasn’t using this service?”

Deep Work Scheduling and Execution

  • “[Donald] Knuth deploys what I call the monastic philosophy of deep work scheduling. This philosophy attempts to maximize deep efforts by eliminating or radically minimizing shallow obligations.”
  • “[Carl] Jung’s approach is what I call the bimodal philosophy of deep work. This philosophy asks that you divide your time, dedicating some clearly defined stretches to deep pursuits and leaving the rest open to everything else.”
  • “[The rhythmic philosophy] argues that the easiest way to consistently start deep work sessions is to transform them into a simple regular habit.”

The Four Disciplines of Execution (4DX) in Deep Work

  1. Focus on the Wildly Important
  2. Act on the Lead Measures
  3. Keep a Compelling Scoreboard
  4. Create a Cadence of Accountability
  • “For an individual focused on deep work, the implication is that you should identify a small number of ambitious outcomes to pursue with your deep work hours.”
  • “In 4DX, there are two types of metrics for this purpose: lag measures and lead measures.”
  • “Lag measures describe the thing you’re ultimately trying to improve.”
  • “Lead measures, on the other hand, ‘measure the new behaviors that will drive success on the lag measures.’”
  • “Lead measures turn your attention to improving the behaviors you directly control in the near future that will then have a positive impact on your long-term goals.”


  1. How can I structure my day to prioritize deep work and minimize shallow activities?
  2. What specific skill can I focus on intensely to enhance my performance and career growth?
  3. How do I manage my attention switches between tasks to reduce performance-dropping residue?
  4. What personalized rituals and routines can I establish to enhance my deep work sessions?
  5. In what ways can I use my downtime to recharge and gain insights that support my deep work?
  6. How can scheduling my Internet use enhance my focus and productivity in deep work?
  7. Which digital tools truly contribute to my success and happiness, and which should I consider eliminating?
  8. Which deep work philosophy (monastic, bimodal, or rhythmic) aligns best with my lifestyle and work demands?
  9. What are my 'Wildly Important Goals' and how can I use lead measures to achieve them?
  10. How can I ensure my daily activities are directly contributing to my long-term personal and professional goals?

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